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The dinar (DZD) is the official currency of Algeria, whose name stems from the Roman "denarius." Divided into 100 centimes, the dinar is pegged to a basket of currencies in what is known as a composite regime. The current series of notes was issued in 1981, 1992, and 1998; some older notes, however, may be redeemed until 2008.
- Importing and exporting local currency is prohibited for foreigners.
- Only residents are allowed to do so, with a cap on 200 DZD.
- Foreign currency may be imported for free, but must be declared.
- Foreign currency export is limited to the amount imported.
- Foreigners must have proof of foreign currency exchange in order to leave the country.
In 1965, the Bahrain Currency Board introduced notes in denominations of ¼, ½, 1, 5 and 10 dinar. In 1973, the Bahrain Monetary Agency took over the issuance of paper money, and in 1979 it introduced a new family of notes dated 1973 in Arabic, with denominations of ½, 1, 5, 10 and 20 dinar. In September of 2006, the Bahrain Monetary Agency was renamed the Central Bank of Bahrain. In March of 2008, the Central Bank of Bahrain introduced a new family of notes reflecting Bahrain's heritage as well as its modern development. Saudi riyals are also acceptable in Bahrain, with the exception of the Saudi 500 riyal note which is only accepted in major supermarkets, airports and electronic shops.
While many countries in the Middle East thrive on their oil reserves, Jordan is an exception in this trend. The country's landlocked position brings with it scarce water supplies and an inadequate supply of natural resources (namely oil and coal). As such shortages often translate into problems such as debt, poverty and unemployment, Jordan relies on foreign aid from its oil-rich neighboring countries. Recently, Jordan has been trying harder to improve its living standards by engaging in economic reform. Since King Abdallah has taken throne, he has worked very closely with the IMF, been careful when implementing monetary policy, made considerable progress with privatization, and relaxed the trade regime just enough so that it has assured Jordan's membership in the World Trade Organization. All of these actions have helped Jordan become more productive and put it on the foreign investment map. Jordan's main goals are to reduce its reliance on foreign aid, lower its budget deficit, and increase incentives to invest in order to encourage job creation.
The Kuwaiti Dinar, denoted by KWD, is the official currency of Kuwait. The KWD, which is divided into 100 units, was introduced to Kuwait in 1960 as a replacement for the Indian Rupee. The currency has reached a reestablished value and maintained a very high exchange rate, making it one of the highest valued currencies in the world.
The Libyan dinar is the official currency used in Libya. Denoted by LYD, one Libyan dinar can be divided into 1000 Libyan dirhams. During the time Libya was still a part of the Ottoman Empire, the country used the Ottoman Empire currency, piastres. When Italy started taking over, the lira was introduced. The introduction of the lira sparked the trend of using a different currency for different territories. At one point, the lira, Algerian franc and Egyptian pound were used nationwide. When Libya gained its independence in 1951, the Libyan pound was introduced. In 1971, the Central Bank of Libya introduced the nation's existing currency: the Libyan dinar. Today, the Bank supervises the banking system and regulates credit. In 1972, the Libyan Arab Foreign Bank was established to deal with matters pertaining to overseas investments.
The denar (plural: denari) is the currency of the Republic of Macedonia. It is subdivided into 100. The name denar comes from the name of the ancient Roman monetary unit, the denarius. The currency symbol is ???, the first three letters of its name. The Macedonian denar was introduced on April 26, 1992.
The official currency in Serbia is the Serbian Dinar - RSD (although the old symbol CSD is still in use in some places).
In 1960, banknotes were introduced by the Central Bank of Tunisia in denominations of ½, 1 and 5 dinar. These were followed by 10 dinar notes in 1969. The last ½ dinar notes were dated 1973 whilst the last 1 dinar notes were dated 1980. 20 dinar notes were introduced in 1980, with the last 5 dinar notes dated 1993. 30 dinar notes were issued in 1997. 50 dinar notes were issued on July 25, 2009. In 2006 an updated version of the frequently used 10 dinar note, with holographic foil, was issued.